viernes, 27 de febrero de 2015

Las siete competencias esenciales de los nuevos managers

Si quisiéramos definir lo que es management, diríamos que es el arte de crear relaciones dinámicas y creativas entre un individuo, su entorno y las situaciones que debe enfrentar, para desplegar un conjunto de actitudes y comportamientos, permitiendo a las personas imaginar y aplicar las soluciones más satisfactorias en un medio incierto. 

Y mientras que el motor que inspira al manager es la intención estratégica, su
s competencias esenciales son:

1 La flexibilidad
Una empresa, un hombre, sólo puede desarrollarse dentro de un entorno imprevisible cuando poseen aptitudes para el cambio.
Cambio de estrategia, de estructura, de estilo, de "don de mando", para la compañía, revisión de los valores y de los estereotipos culturales.
Cuanto más importantes y numerosas sean las fluctuaciones, más grande es la flexibilidad que se requiere para hacer frente.
Sin embargo, la mayoría de las estructuras no están adaptadas al mundo inestable de este fin de siglo; nacidas en un entorno inmutable, no fueron concebidas para el cambio. Su estabilidad, su pesadez, su precisión, todas estas cualidades apreciadas en el pasado, se han transformado hoy en verdaderos inconvenientes.

Están privadas de ésa capacidad de desarrollo innovador que las caracterizó en sus orígenes.

2 El discernimiento
La diferencia entre el triunfo y el fracaso, el éxito y la quiebra, reside en la capacidad de separar lo esencial de lo accesorio.
El discernimiento es indispensable para actuar con eficacia en situaciones poco claras y delicadas. Implica la capacidad de diferenciación y jerarquización.
La capacidad de jerarquizar es indispensable dentro de un medio con exceso de información. El cerebro se encuentra mejor provisto para dirigir la escasez que el exceso de información.
Más que nunca lo urgente ha invadido el tiempo de decisión, y los que deciden, por no tratar los verdaderos problemas, crean para el futuro nuevas urgencias.

De aquí que lo importante sea filtrar. Tener discernimiento es cuestión de filtros y de buenos filtros.

3 El espíritu de síntesis
Ya no podemos considerar un fenómeno de manera aislada. Todo este conduce ineluctablemente a condenar la especialización. Todo especialista debe ser también un generalista.
Cada especialista debe ampliar su campo de competencia y estar en capacidad de comprender en profundidad el lenguaje, el pensamiento, la lógica y los métodos utilizados dentro de los otros campos.
El dirigente es un hombre dotado de un zoom. Sin cesar, pasa de una visión global (gran ángulo), a la de un teleobjetivo: precisa, aguda, pero estable y parcial.

La antropología, la etnología, la etología, la psicología, son campos, que, dentro de éste contexto, son tan importantes como el marketing o la informática.

4 El sentido de lo humano
Los dirigentes sólo se comunican por medio de reuniones formales, lo que esconde la necesidad de calor humano, de pertenecer a una comunidad, preservando sin embargo la individualidad, y el libre albedrío.
No serán los excelentes administradores, sino los cuadros cultos, humanistas y abiertos al mundo de la reflexión, quienes mejor motiven a los responsables, les den la energía y la voluntad que permitan a la empresa desarrollarse en un mundo altamente competitivo.

5 La apertura y la tolerancia
Hasta ahora el espíritu de grupo era considerado como la clave fundamental para alcanzar el éxito, y se ponía todo en marcha para reforzarlo y exaltarlo.
Hoy, nos damos cuenta que esta ventaja conlleva reveses peligrosos. En efecto, la cultura de empresa es generadora de estereotipos. Este inmovilismo podría romperse con la primera mutación del medio.

Le corresponde entonces a los dirigentes de todos los niveles controlar los defectos del sentido crítico. Criticarse, es estar abierto y tolerante con los demás. No debemos olvidar que el futuro es provocador. El dirigente es aquel que sabe proteger a los "locos", a los "diferentes" , a los "imaginativos".
6 La concentración y el espíritu crítico

El secreto de los campeones deportivos está en la capacidad de visualizar sin tregua todas las facetas de su adversario; de analizar con serenidad sus propias debilidades y tratar de colmarlas.
La concentración intensa, continua, crítica y abierta es la marca del dirigente. Si es escasa, sin embargo, se adquiere, como se adquiere una musculatura, una resistencia, un sentido de las oportunidades.

7 Salir de la visión encasillada
Para poder salir de la estrechez de visión que nos impide ver alrededor y al lado, se necesita fuerza, porque la idea fuerte y simple negada por la idea dominante, molesta a todo el mundo. Unicamente los artistas, los soñadores se atreven a perderse en estos surcos.
Los dirigentes auténticos saben tomar el riesgo de perderse, y cuando ellos mismos no son éstos "mutantes', los frecuentan asiduamente, éstos les dan sus intuiciones y visiones, para que ellos las transformen en acciones innovadoras.

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